The symptoms of alopecia areata are bald patches on the scalp and other parts of the body with hair. Even young people frequently develop alopecia areata. Alopecia areata treatment is a quite difficult procedure but appropriate treatment methods allow to reduce disease symptoms.
Alopecia areata – characteristic features
Alopecia areata involves chronic inflammation of follicles. Causes of alopecia areata are not found yet. A group of hair falls out creating a bald patch. It is the second the most common cause of alopecia areata in humans. People of all ages and both sexes develop alopecia areata. Hair loss can be permanent or temporary. Bald patches are of different shapes and sizes. Sometimes they can blend. The course of disease is different depending on the case. In order to effectively treat alopecia areata it is necessary to find its cause and eliminate other diseases.
Causes of alopecia areata
It is obvious that alopecia areata results from genetic factors. Its common cause is autoimmune disorder. Other main causes include diabetes type I, lupus, albinism and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. However, appropriate treatment of disease cause can stop its process or reduce hair loss.
Some researchers claims that the disease may be genetic and it applies to 20 – 60 per cent patients. Identical twins and first-degree relatives have the increased risk of developing alopecia areata. About 10 per cent patients with Down syndrome also suffer from alopecia areata. Therefore, researchers link genes surrounding chromosome 21 to alopecia. They also claim that the cause of hair loss can be psychodermatological diseases resulting from long-term stress and intense emotional states. Another cause of alopecia areata is hair growth cycle disorder leading to extensive hair loss. Poor blood circulation in the scalp can also be linked to excessive hair loss as well as vitamins and minerals deficiency.
Alopecia areata treatment options
There are a few effective alopecia areata treatment options. They include topical application agents such as glucocorticosteroids, minoxidil, dithranol, calcineurin inhibitors, diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP), squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE) and dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB). In some cases it is recommended to inject triamcinolone solution into bald patches.
Photochemotherapy three times a week (UV) is highly effective, produces little side effects and stimulates follicles growth. Another treatment option is using photosensitive agents, called psoralens. Then the patches are exposed to UV light and methoxsalen is administered at the dose of 0.5 mg/kg body weight. This method can produce the following side effects: nausea, feeling unwell and headaches.
Another recommended method is DPCP and DNCB immunotherapy. They involve topical application of DPCP or DNCB (2%) to cause contact allergy. After 2 weeks a lower concentration (0.0001) is chosen. The above therapy should be performed only in a specialized clinic. The effectiveness assessment is performed about 3 months later.
Alopecia areata – prevention
Natural methods are equally important in alopecia areata treatment. Some of them can be performed at home. A patient is recommended to do needle mesotherapy (derma rollers) on his own. An appropriate roller with 540 microneedles is required. Injections stimulate the scalp and circulation leading to a better flow of nutrients into hair.
Massages can also help as they stimulate middle skin layers. In some patients aromatherapy can have goods results. This therapy uses essential oils such as rosemary, thyme and lavender. Additionally, a diet rich in foods with a low glycemic index has a significant influence on alopecia areata prevention. It is also worth considering methods helping to relax such as yoga classes, psychologists and psychiatrist support.
Alopecia areata – summary
It is important to start treatment once you see the symptoms. Quick diagnose and treatment allow to take medicines for a shorter period of time. Topical application of formulations in some cases shows excellent results.